# AI For Trading:Sharpe Ratio (68)

## Sharpe Ratio

夏普比率计算公式=[E(Rp)－Rf]/σp, 其中E(Rp)：投资组合预期报酬率, Rf：无风险利率, σp：投资组合的标准差.

The sharpe ratio, sometimes referred to as the risk adjusted return,is a key metric for evaluating alpha factors. This is the ratio of the daily factor return divided by the daily standard deviation of the return.

As an example, if we had three years worth of daily data, we could calculate the average daily return over those three years and divide by the sample standard deviation of those daily returns, and then analyse that by multiplying by the square root of the number of trading days in a year.

If we have two factors that have the same universe and similar turnover profiles, we will prefer the one with the higher sharpe ratio. Sharpe ratio is the key metric that institutional asset managers are judged on. Note that the Sharpe ratio, like many evaluation metrics for alpha factors, help us to compare the relative performance of alpha vectors.

The sharpe ratio is key, not the magnitude of factor returns. Because as we learned in the immediately preceding section, we can amplify or dampen returns by the use of leverage. It is the sharpe ratio that gives us the confidence to apply that leverage.

## Install packages

import sys
!{sys.executable} -m pip install -r requirements.txt
import cvxpy as cvx
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import time
import os
import quiz_helper
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
plt.style.use('ggplot')
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (14, 8)

### data bundle

import os
import quiz_helper
from zipline.data import bundles
os.environ['ZIPLINE_ROOT'] = os.path.join(os.getcwd(), '..', '..','data','module_4_quizzes_eod')
ingest_func = bundles.csvdir.csvdir_equities(['daily'], quiz_helper.EOD_BUNDLE_NAME)
bundles.register(quiz_helper.EOD_BUNDLE_NAME, ingest_func)
print('Data Registered')

### Build pipeline engine

from zipline.pipeline import Pipeline
from zipline.pipeline.factors import AverageDollarVolume
from zipline.utils.calendars import get_calendar

universe = AverageDollarVolume(window_length=120).top(500)
engine = quiz_helper.build_pipeline_engine(bundle_data, trading_calendar)

### View Data

With the pipeline engine built, let's get the stocks at the end of the period in the universe we're using. We'll use these tickers to generate the returns data for the our risk model.

universe_end_date = pd.Timestamp('2016-01-05', tz='UTC')

universe_tickers = engine\
.run_pipeline(
Pipeline(screen=universe),
universe_end_date,
universe_end_date)\
.index.get_level_values(1)\
.values.tolist()

universe_tickers

Get Returns data

from zipline.data.data_portal import DataPortal

data_portal = DataPortal(
bundle_data.asset_finder,
adjustment_reader=bundle_data.adjustment_reader)

## Get pricing data helper function

def get_pricing(data_portal, trading_calendar, assets, start_date, end_date, field='close'):
end_dt = pd.Timestamp(end_date.strftime('%Y-%m-%d'), tz='UTC', offset='C')
start_dt = pd.Timestamp(start_date.strftime('%Y-%m-%d'), tz='UTC', offset='C')

return data_portal.get_history_window(
assets=assets,
end_dt=end_dt,
bar_count=end_loc - start_loc,
frequency='1d',
field=field,
data_frequency='daily')

## get pricing data into a dataframe

returns_df = \
get_pricing(
data_portal,
universe_tickers,
universe_end_date - pd.DateOffset(years=5),
universe_end_date)\
.pct_change()[1:].fillna(0) #convert prices into returns

returns_df

## Sector data helper function

We'll create an object for you, which defines a sector for each stock. The sectors are represented by integers. We inherit from the Classifier class. Documentation for Classifier, and the source code for Classifier

from zipline.pipeline.classifiers import Classifier
from zipline.utils.numpy_utils import int64_dtype
class Sector(Classifier):
dtype = int64_dtype
window_length = 0
inputs = ()
missing_value = -1

def __init__(self):

def _compute(self, arrays, dates, assets, mask):
return np.where(
self.data[assets],
self.missing_value,
)
sector = Sector()

## We'll use 2 years of data to calculate the factor

Note: Going back 2 years falls on a day when the market is closed. Pipeline package doesn't handle start or end dates that don't fall on days when the market is open. To fix this, we went back 2 extra days to fall on the next day when the market is open.

factor_start_date = universe_end_date - pd.DateOffset(years=2, days=2)
factor_start_date

## Create smoothed momentum factor

from zipline.pipeline.factors import Returns
from zipline.pipeline.factors import SimpleMovingAverage

# create a pipeline called p
p = Pipeline(screen=universe)
# create a factor of one year returns, deman by sector, then rank
factor = (
demean(groupby=Sector()). #we use the custom Sector class that we reviewed earlier
rank().
zscore()
)

# Use this factor as input into SimpleMovingAverage, with a window length of 5
# Also rank and zscore (don't need to de-mean by sector, s)
factor_smoothed = (
SimpleMovingAverage(inputs=[factor], window_length=5).
rank().
zscore()
)

# add the unsmoothed factor to the pipeline
# add the smoothed factor to the pipeline too
p.add(factor_smoothed, 'Smoothed_Momentum_Factor')

## visualize the pipeline

Note that if the image is difficult to read in the notebook, right-click and view the image in a separate tab.

p.show_graph(format='png')

## run pipeline and view the factor data

df = engine.run_pipeline(p, factor_start_date, universe_end_date)
df.head()

## Evaluate Factors

We'll go over some tools that we can use to evaluate alpha factors. To do so, we'll use the alphalens library

## Import alphalens

import alphalens as al

## Get price data

Note, we already got the price data and converted it to returns, which we used to calculate a factor. We'll retrieve the price data again, but won't convert these to returns. This is because we'll use alphalens functions that take their input as prices and not returns.

## Define the list of assets

Just to make sure we get the prices for the stocks that have factor values, we'll get the list of assets, which may be a subset of the original universe

# get list of stocks in our portfolio (tickers that identify each stock)
assets = df.index.levels.values.tolist()
print(f"stock universe number of stocks {len(universe_tickers)}, and number of stocks for which we have factor values {len(assets)}")
factor_start_date
pricing = get_pricing(
data_portal,
assets, #notice that we used assets instead of universe_tickers; in this example, they're the same
factor_start_date, # notice we're using the same start and end dates for when we calculated the factor
universe_end_date)

## Prepare data for use in alphalens

factor_names = df.columns
print(f"The factor names are {factor_names}")
factor_data = {}
for factor_name in factor_names:
print("Formatting factor data for: " + factor_name)
# get clean factor and forward returns for each factor
factor_data[factor_name] = al.utils.get_clean_factor_and_forward_returns(
factor=df[factor_name],
prices=pricing,
periods=)

### factor returns

ls_factor_return = []

for i, factor_name in enumerate(factor_names):
# use alphalens function "factor_returns" to calculate factor returns
factor_return = al.performance.factor_returns(factor_data[factor_name])
factor_return.columns = [factor_name]
ls_factor_return.append(factor_return)

Quiz 1: Sharpe ratio

Generally, a sharpe ratio of 1 or higher indicates a better factor than one with a lower Sharpe ratio. In other words, the returns that would have been accrued by a portfolio that was weighted according to the alpha factor would have had an annualized return that is greater or equal to its annualized volatility

Recall that the annualize the sharpe ratio (from daily to annual), multiply by $\sqrt{252}$

def sharpe_ratio(df, frequency="daily"):

if frequency == "daily":
# TODO: daily to annual conversion
annualization_factor = np.sqrt(252)
elif frequency == "monthly":
#TODO: monthly to annual conversion
annualization_factor = np.sqrt(12)
else:
# TODO: no conversion
annualization_factor = 1

#TODO: calculate the sharpe ratio and store it in a dataframe.
# name the column 'Sharpe Ratio'.
# round the numbers to 2 decimal places
df_sharpe = pd.DataFrame(data=annualization_factor*df.mean()/df.std(),
columns=['Sharpe Ratio']).round(2)

return df_sharpe

## Quiz 2

Compare the sharpe ratio of the unsmoothed versus smoothed version of the factors.

# TODO: calculate sharpe ratio on the unsmooothed factor
sharpe_ratio(ls_factor_return)
# TODO: calculate sharpe ratio on the smooothed factor
sharpe_ratio(ls_factor_return)