AI For Trading: Inference and Solution (104)

Inference

Let's put all these pieces together! One of the coolest ways to test a model like this is to give it user-generated data, without any true label, and see what happens. So, in this case, that data will just be a single string: a review that you can write and here’s just one test_reviewas an example:

# negative test review
test_review_neg = 'The worst movie I have seen; acting was terrible and I want my money back. This movie had bad acting and the dialogue was slow.'

We can see that this review is a negative one, but let's see if our model can identify it's sentiment correctly!

Our task is to write a predict function that takes in a trained model, a test_review like this one that is just normal text and punctuation, a sequence_length for padding.

The process by which you make predictions based on user data, is called inference.

Pre-process the test_review

The first thing we'll have to do it to process the test_review, so that it is converted into a tensor that our model can see as input. In fact, this involves quite a lot of pre-processing, but nothing that you haven't seen before!

I broke this down into a series of steps.

I have a helper function tokenize_review that is responsible for doing some data processing on my test_review.

It takes in my test_review, and then does a couple of things:

• 1、First, I convert my test_review to lowercase, and remove any punctuation, so I’m left with all text.
• 2、Then I breaks it into individual words with split(), and I’m left with a list of words in the review.
• 3、I encode those words using the vocab_to_int dictionary that we already defined, near the start of this lesson.

Now, I am assuming a few things here, including: this review is one review, not a batch, and that this review only includes words already in our dictionary, and in this case that will be true, but you can add code to handle unknown characters, I just didn’t do that in my model.

from string import punctuation

def tokenize_review(test_review):
test_review = test_review.lower() # lowercase
# get rid of punctuation
test_text = ''.join([c for c in test_review if c not in punctuation])

# splitting by spaces
test_words = test_text.split()

# tokens
test_ints = []
test_ints.append([vocab_to_int[word] for word in test_words])

return test_ints

Okay, so this tokenize function returns a list of integers; my tokenized review!

Padding and converting into a Tensor

For my next couple of steps, I’m going to pad the ints, returned by the tokenize_review function and shape them into our sequence_length size; since our model was trained on sequence lengths of 200, I’m going to use the same length, here. I'll pad it using the pad_features function that we defined earlier.

Finally, I’m going to convert the padded result into a Tensor. So, these are all the steps, and I’m going to wrap this all up in my predict function.

def predict(net, test_review, sequence_length=200):

net.eval()

# tokenize review
test_ints = tokenize_review(test_review)

seq_length=sequence_length

# convert to tensor to pass into your model
feature_tensor = torch.from_numpy(features)

batch_size = feature_tensor.size(0)

# initialize hidden state
h = net.init_hidden(batch_size)

if(train_on_gpu):
feature_tensor = feature_tensor.cuda()

# get the output from the model
output, h = net(feature_tensor, h)

# convert output probabilities to predicted class (0 or 1)
pred = torch.round(output.squeeze())
# printing output value, before rounding
print('Prediction value, pre-rounding: {:.6f}'.format(output.item()))

# print custom response
if(pred.item()==1):
print("Positive review detected!")
else:
print("Negative review detected.")

So, using the passed in arguments, I’m tokenizing my review using my helper function, then padding it using my pad function, and converting it into a Tensor that can be seen by my model.

Then, I’m passing this tensor into my trained net which will return an output of length one. With this output, I can grab the most likely class, which will be the rounded value 0 or 1; this is my prediction!

Lastly, I want to print out a custom message for a positive or negative detected review, and I’m doing that at the bottom of the above function!

You can test this out on sample positive and negative text reviews to see how this trained model behaves! Below, you can see how it identifies our negative test review correctly.

Identifies negative review

Conclusion

Now that you have a trained model and a predict function, you can pass in any kind of text and this model will predict whether the text has a positive or negative sentiment. You can use this to try to find what words it associates with positive or negative sentiment.

Later, you'll learn how to deploy a model like this to a production environment so that it can respond to any kind of user data put into a web app!

For now, great job implementing so many kinds of recurrent neural networks!!