# AI For Trading:Decision Trees Exercise (107)

## Getting Started

In this lab, you will see how decision trees work by implementing a decision tree in sklearn.

We'll start by loading the dataset and displaying some of its rows.

# Import libraries necessary for this project
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from IPython.display import display # Allows the use of display() for DataFrames

# Pretty display for notebooks
%matplotlib inline

# Set a random seed
import random
random.seed(42)

in_file = 'titanic_data.csv'

# Print the first few entries of the RMS Titanic data
display(full_data.head())
PassengerId Survived Pclass Name Sex Age SibSp Parch Ticket Fare Cabin Embarked
0 1 0 3 Braund, Mr. Owen Harris male 22.0 1 0 A/5 21171 7.2500 NaN S
1 2 1 1 Cumings, Mrs. John Bradley (Florence Briggs Th... female 38.0 1 0 PC 17599 71.2833 C85 C
2 3 1 3 Heikkinen, Miss. Laina female 26.0 0 0 STON/O2. 3101282 7.9250 NaN S
3 4 1 1 Futrelle, Mrs. Jacques Heath (Lily May Peel) female 35.0 1 0 113803 53.1000 C123 S
4 5 0 3 Allen, Mr. William Henry male 35.0 0 0 373450 8.0500 NaN S

Recall that these are the various features present for each passenger on the ship:

• Survived: Outcome of survival (0 = No; 1 = Yes)
• Pclass: Socio-economic class (1 = Upper class; 2 = Middle class; 3 = Lower class)
• Name: Name of passenger
• Sex: Sex of the passenger
• Age: Age of the passenger (Some entries contain NaN)
• SibSp: Number of siblings and spouses of the passenger aboard
• Parch: Number of parents and children of the passenger aboard
• Ticket: Ticket number of the passenger
• Fare: Fare paid by the passenger
• Cabin Cabin number of the passenger (Some entries contain NaN)
• Embarked: Port of embarkation of the passenger (C = Cherbourg; Q = Queenstown; S = Southampton)

Since we're interested in the outcome of survival for each passenger or crew member, we can remove the Survived feature from this dataset and store it as its own separate variable outcomes. We will use these outcomes as our prediction targets.
Run the code cell below to remove Survived as a feature of the dataset and store it in outcomes.

# Store the 'Survived' feature in a new variable and remove it from the dataset
outcomes = full_data['Survived']
features_raw = full_data.drop('Survived', axis = 1)

# Show the new dataset with 'Survived' removed
display(features_raw.head())
PassengerId Pclass Name Sex Age SibSp Parch Ticket Fare Cabin Embarked
0 1 3 Braund, Mr. Owen Harris male 22.0 1 0 A/5 21171 7.2500 NaN S
1 2 1 Cumings, Mrs. John Bradley (Florence Briggs Th... female 38.0 1 0 PC 17599 71.2833 C85 C
2 3 3 Heikkinen, Miss. Laina female 26.0 0 0 STON/O2. 3101282 7.9250 NaN S
3 4 1 Futrelle, Mrs. Jacques Heath (Lily May Peel) female 35.0 1 0 113803 53.1000 C123 S
4 5 3 Allen, Mr. William Henry male 35.0 0 0 373450 8.0500 NaN S

The very same sample of the RMS Titanic data now shows the Survived feature removed from the DataFrame. Note that data (the passenger data) and outcomes (the outcomes of survival) are now paired. That means for any passenger data.loc[i], they have the survival outcome outcomes[i].

## Preprocessing the data

Now, let's do some data preprocessing. First, we'll remove the names of the passengers, and then one-hot encode the features.

Question: Why would it be a terrible idea to one-hot encode the data without removing the names?
(Andw

# Removing the names
features_no_names = features_raw.drop(['Name'], axis=1)

# One-hot encoding
features = pd.get_dummies(features_no_names)

And now we'll fill in any blanks with zeroes.

features = features.fillna(0.0)
display(features.head())
PassengerId Pclass Age SibSp Parch Fare Sex_female Sex_male Ticket_110152 Ticket_110413 ... Cabin_F G73 Cabin_F2 Cabin_F33 Cabin_F38 Cabin_F4 Cabin_G6 Cabin_T Embarked_C Embarked_Q Embarked_S
0 1 3 22.0 1 0 7.2500 0 1 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 2 1 38.0 1 0 71.2833 1 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
2 3 3 26.0 0 0 7.9250 1 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
3 4 1 35.0 1 0 53.1000 1 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
4 5 3 35.0 0 0 8.0500 0 1 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

5 rows × 839 columns

## (TODO) Training the model

Now we're ready to train a model in sklearn. First, let's split the data into training and testing sets. Then we'll train the model on the training set.

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(features, outcomes, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)

# Import the classifier from sklearn
from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier

# TODO: Define the classifier, and fit it to the data
model = DecisionTreeClassifier()
model.fit(X_train, y_train)
DecisionTreeClassifier(class_weight=None, criterion='gini', max_depth=None,
max_features=None, max_leaf_nodes=None,
min_impurity_decrease=0.0, min_impurity_split=None,
min_samples_leaf=1, min_samples_split=2,
min_weight_fraction_leaf=0.0, presort=False, random_state=None,
splitter='best')

## Testing the model

Now, let's see how our model does, let's calculate the accuracy over both the training and the testing set.

# Making predictions
y_train_pred = model.predict(X_train)
y_test_pred = model.predict(X_test)

# Calculate the accuracy
from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score
train_accuracy = accuracy_score(y_train, y_train_pred)
test_accuracy = accuracy_score(y_test, y_test_pred)
print('The training accuracy is', train_accuracy)
print('The test accuracy is', test_accuracy)
The training accuracy is 1.0
The test accuracy is 0.815642458101

Exercise: Improving the model

Ok, high training accuracy and a lower testing accuracy. We may be overfitting a bit.

So now it's your turn to shine! Train a new model, and try to specify some parameters in order to improve the testing accuracy, such as:

• max_depth
• min_samples_leaf
• min_samples_split

You can use your intuition, trial and error, or even better, feel free to use Grid Search!

Challenge: Try to get to 85% accuracy on the testing set. If you'd like a hint, take a look at the solutions notebook next.

# TODO: Train the model
model = DecisionTreeClassifier(max_depth=6, min_samples_leaf=6, min_samples_split=10)
model.fit(X_train, y_train)

# TODO: Make predictions
y_train_pred = model.predict(X_train)
y_test_pred = model.predict(X_test)

# TODO: Calculate the accuracy
train_accuracy = accuracy_score(y_train, y_train_pred)
test_accuracy = accuracy_score(y_test, y_test_pred)

print('The training accuracy is', train_accuracy)
print('The test accuracy is', test_accuracy)
The training accuracy is 0.870786516854
The test accuracy is 0.854748603352